Clinical Research

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This page is currently Under Construction. From ECITA with permission.

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Acute effects of using an electronic nicotine-delivery device (e-cigarette) on myocardial function: comparison with the effects of regular cigarettes

Farsalinos, K., et al.

Presented at ESC Congress, 2012. Unpublished to date.

Haemodynamics: significant elevation in blood pressure and heart rate (+8% in systolic, +6% in diastolic, +10% in heart rate) after smoking Slight elevation of diastolic blood pressure alone (+4%) after Electronic Cigarette use

Cardiac function: diastolic function acutely impaired in smokers (4 parameters adversely affected), in agreement with previous Studies No difference in diastolic function observed after Electronic Cigarette use

Potential mechanisms Less nicotine absorbed (Bullen et al, Tob Control 2010) Absence of combustion and different chemical composition, leading to less toxic chemicals created and absorbed.” <pdf>http://www.escardio.org/about/press/esc-congress-2012/press-conferences/Documents/presentations/konstantinos-farsalinos.pdf</pdf>

Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e cigarette) on desire to smoke and withdrawal, user preferences and nicotine delivery: randomised cross-over trial

Bullen, C., et al Published in Tobacco Control, 2010

“The 16 mg Ruyan V8 ENDD alleviated desire to smoke after overnight abstinence, was well tolerated and had a pharmacokinetic profile more like the Nicorette inhalator than a tobacco cigarette. Evaluation of the ENDD for longer-term safety, potential for long-term use and efficacy as a cessation aid is needed. Trial registration No.12607000587404, Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register.” <pdf>http://www.healthnz.co.nz/2010%20Bullen%20ECig.pdf</pdf>

A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic “Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects

Vansickel, A.R., et al

Published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 2010

“This study illustrates how clinical laboratory methods can be used to understand the acute effects of these and other PREPs for tobacco users. The results and methods reported here will likely be relevant to the evaluation and empirically based regulation of electronic cigarettes and similar products.” <pdf>http://app4.websitetonight.com/projects/2/4/6/0/2460830/uploads/Virgiania_Commonwealth_University_Study.pdf</pdf>

Acute effect of e-cigarette on pulmonary function in healthy subjects and smokers

Gennimata, S.A., et al

Abstract presented at ERS Congress, Vienna, 2012

The results of this study, which found that electronic cigarettes have “a measurable effect that lasts ten minutes”, were reported – by one of the lead authors, Professor Christina Graziou – as “can cause immediate harm”.

This ‘research’ was widely criticised:

Professor M Siegel: “Experts” from University of Athens Tell the Public They Are Not Sure if Smoking is Any More Hazardous than Vaping. Despite Lack of Demonstration of Clinically Significant Effects on Airways and Improvements in Respiratory Symptoms in Many Vapers [1]

Professor M Siegel: European Respiratory Society Publicly Claims that Electronic Cigarettes Cause Cancer and Lies About Tobacco Industry Involvement in Creation of These Products [2]

Dr Carl Phillips: Christina Gratziou is a liar [3]

American Council on Science and Health: E-Cigarette study is just amateur propaganda [4]


ERSNet[5]

Observation de l’acceptation de la cigarette électronique, Résultats à trois mois

Granger, J. & Cornette, B.

2012. Unpublished to date.

  • 64% of the persons having used the Electronic Cigarette noticed positive effects on their health. 15% indicated minor side effects (mouth, lips or throat irritated).
    • Over the 3 months, the heart rhythm of the participants decreased.
    • The level of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) decreased in every case and reduced to nil/zero for vapers having stopped smoking.
    • Weight gain was moderated. In cases of complete smoking cessation with continuation of vaping, weight gain was less than is usually noticed following smoking cessation.
    • The forced vital capacity (FVC) improved with the use of the electronic cigarette, especially when there was significant reduction or total cessation of smoking.
    • The maximum expiratory pressure per second (MEPS) was stable or improved slightly with the use of the electronic cigarette.”

(The above was taken from our own translation of the study, which French colleagues have confirmed is accurate. The full translation is available from the ECITA blog.)[6]

Electronic cigarette: users profile, utilization, satisfaction and perceived efficacy

Etter, J.F., & Bullen, C.

Published in Addiction, 2011


Findings There were 3587 participants (70% former tobacco smokers, 61% men, mean age 41 years). The median duration of electronic cigarette use was 3 months, users drew 120 puffs/day and used 5 refills/day. Almost all (97%) used e-cigarettes containing nicotine. Daily users spent $33 per month on these products. Most (96%) said the e-cigarette helped them quit smoking or reduce their smoking (92%). Reasons for using the e-cigarette included the perception it was less toxic than tobacco (84%), to deal with craving for tobacco (79%) and withdrawal symptoms (67%), to quit smoking or avoid relapsing (77%), because it was cheaper than smoking (57%) and to deal with situations where smoking was prohibited (39%). Most ex-smokers (79%) feared they might relapse to smoking if they stopped using the e-cigarette. Users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes reported better relief of withdrawal and a greater effect on smoking cessation than those using non-nicotine e-cigarettes.

Conclusions E-cigarettes were used much as people would use nicotine replacement medications: by former smokers to avoid relapse or as an aid to cut down or quit smoking. Further research should evaluate the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes for administration of nicotine and other substances, and for quitting and relapse prevention.”[7]

Smoking Cessation with E-Cigarettes in Smokers with a Documented History of Depression and Recurring Relapses

Caponnetto, P., Polosa, R., Auditore, R., Russo, C., & Campagna, D.

Published in the International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2011

“This is the first time that objective measures of smoking cessation are reported for smokers who quit successfully after using an E-cigarette. This was accomplished in smokers who repeatedly failed in previous attempts with professional smoking cessation assistance using the usual nicotine dependence treatments and smoking cessation counselling.” <pdf>http://www.jmedicalcasereports.com/content/pdf/1752-1947-5-585.pdf</pdf>

Electronic Cigarettes: Effective Nicotine Delivery After Acute Administration

Vansickel, A.R., & Eissenberg, T.

Published in Nicotine and Tobacco Research, Oxford Journals[8] , 2012

“User experience and/or device characteristics likely influence EC nicotine delivery and other effects. Systematic manipulation of these and other variables could elucidate conditions that produce intended effects.”

Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study

Caponnetto, P., et al

Published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health[9], 2013

“We have shown for the first time that the use of e-cigarette substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects in chronic schizophrenic patients who smoke not intending to quit. This was achieved without negative impacts on the symptoms of schizophrenia as assessed by SAPS and SANS symptoms scales.”

Electronic nicotine delivery devices: ineffective nicotine delivery and craving suppression after acute administration

Eissenberg, T. Published in Tobacco Control[10], 2010

Two Studies with ‘ecig-naïve’ participants suggest that electronic cigarettes deliver little or no nicotine. In those studies, standard-sized electronic cigarettes were used, though experienced users often use larger devices that house higher voltage and/or longer lasting batteries. Whether user experience and device characteristics influence electronic cigarette nicotine delivery is uncertain.

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