Studies

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These are only a few of the studies performed. For more information please see the Other Resources section below.


Acute Effects on Myocardial Function

Acute effects of using an electronic nicotine-delivery device (e-cigarette) on myocardial function: comparison with the effects of regular cigarettesPtg02294196.jpg

Authors: K. Farsalinos D. Tsiapras S. Kyrzopoulos M. Savvopoulou E. Avramidou D. Vasilopoulou V. Voudris

Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center [1]

2nd Department of Cardiology - Athens - Greece [2]

Topic(s):Tobacco

Citation: European Heart Journal[3]( 2012 ) 33 ( Abstract Supplement ), 203

Purpose: The addictive properties and devastating consequences of cigarette smoke on human health, including cardiac function, are well known. In recent years the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), a battery-powered nicotine delivery device, has been marketed as a safer habit. Despite the global debate about its' use, no studies have examined the device's consequences on cardiac function. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the acute effects of using the e-cigarette on left ventricular myocardial function and to compare them with the effects of regular cigarettes.

Methods: Participants were 42 healthy volunteers (age 25-45 years): ex-smokers who were using the e-cigarette (group eCIG, n=22), and regular cigarette smokers (group SM, n=20). A complete echocardiographic exam was performed in both groups after 3-hours abstinence from alcohol, coffee and e-cigarette use or smoking (eCIG-1 and SM-1 respectively). A repeat echocardiogram was performed in eCIG subjects after using an e-cigarette with nicotine concentration of 11mg/ml for 7 minutes (eCIG-2). In smokers, the repeat echocardiogram was done after smoking one cigarette (SM-2). Transmitral Doppler flow parameters (MV-E and MV-A wave, E/A ratio and deceleration time-DT) and averaged (lateral, septal, anterior and inferior) tissue Doppler mitral annulus velocities (systolic: Sm, early diastolic: Em, late diastolic: Am) were measured. The isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) and myocardial performance index (MPI) of the left ventricle were also measured.

Results: The two groups had similar characteristics, baseline echocardiographic and haemodynamic parameters. Subjects in the eCIG group had quit smoking for 93±65 days and were using an e-cigarette for 95±64 days; however, they had significantly higher total smoking exposure, with a Brinkman index (number of daily cigarettes x smoking years) of 533±270 compared to 369±150 in SM (p = 0.019). Using the e-cigarette for 7 minutes lead to no significant alterations in any echocardiographic parameters, except for a slight rise in MV-A wave (p = 0.047). On the contrary, a significant decrease in Em velocity (p = 0.005) and Em/Am ratio (p = 0.001), and an increase in IVRT (p = 0.032) and MPI (p=0.01) were found in SM-2 compared to baseline.

Conclusions: Although regular smoking leads to an acute impairment of left ventricular function, the use of e-cigarette for inhaling nicotine-containing liquid exerts no acute adverse effects on cardiac function. Further research is urgently needed since the use of e-cigarettes is continuously rising and it could be a potentially useful method for smoking cessation.

Acute Effects on Myocardial Function Study

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Indoor Air Quality

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Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality October 2012, Vol. 24, No. 12 , Pages 850-857 (doi:10.3109/08958378.2012.724728)

Authors: T. R. McAuley P. K. Hopke J. Zhao S. Babaian

Consulting for Health, Air, Nature, & A Greener Environment, LLC CHANGE [4], Corporate Headquarters, Queensbury, NY, USA

Center for Air Resources Science & Engineering CARES [5](CARES), Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA

National Vapers Club [6], Long Island, NY, USA

Address for Correspondence: Timothy R. McAuley, Consulting for Health, Air, Nature, & A Greener Environment, LLC, 14 Stonehurst Drive, Queensbury, NY 12804–9358, USA. E-mail: mcauleyt@airqualitychange.com


Context: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have earned considerable attention recently as an alternative to smoking tobacco, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality have resulted in proposals for bans on indoor e-cigarette use.

Objective: To assess potential health impacts relating to the use of e-cigarettes, a series of studies were conducted using e-cigarettes and standard tobacco cigarettes.

Methods and materials: Four different high nicotine e-liquids were vaporized in two sets of experiments by generic 2-piece e-cigarettes to collect emissions and assess indoor air concentrations of common tobacco smoke by products. Tobacco cigarette smoke tests were conducted for comparison.

Results: Comparisons of pollutant concentrations were made between e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke samples. Pollutants included VOCs, carbonyls, PAHs, nicotine, TSNAs, and glycols. From these results, risk analyses were conducted based on dilution into a 40 m3 room and standard toxicological data. Non-cancer risk analysis revealed “No Significant Risk” of harm to human health for vapor samples from e-liquids (A-D). In contrast, for tobacco smoke most findings markedly exceeded risk limits indicating a condition of “Significant Risk” of harm to human health. With regard to cancer risk analysis, no vapor sample from e-liquids A-D exceeded the risk limit for either children or adults. The tobacco smoke sample approached the risk limits for adult exposure.

Conclusions: For all byproducts measured, electronic cigarettes produce very small exposures relative to tobacco cigarettes. The study indicates no apparent risk to human health from e-cigarette emissions based on the compounds analyzed.


Indoor Air Quality Study

ClearStream

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by: FlavourArt[7] an Italian Food Flavouring Manufacturer in conjunction with ClearStream [8] funded for scientific studies on E-Liquid by FlavourArt

There are various studies and tests provided directly from their page.

Effects on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms and cognition

Author(s): Lynne Dawkins, John Turner, Surrayyah Hasna and Kirstie Soar

Title:The electronic-cigarette: effects on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms and cognition

Year of publication: 2012

Citation: Dawkins, L., Turner, J., Hasna, S. and Soar, K. (2012) ‘The electroniccigarette: effects on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms and cognition' Addictive Behaviors, available online 10 March 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.03.004

Link to published version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.03.004[9]

Abstract: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapour. Few studies have evaluated acute effects on craving and mood, and none have explored effects on cognition. This study aimed to explore the effects of the White Super e-cigarette on desire to smoke, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, attention and working memory. Eighty-six smokers were randomly allocated to either: 18mg nicotine e-cigarette (nicotine), 0mg e-cigarette (placebo), or just hold the e-cigarette (just hold) conditions. Participants rated their desire to smoke and withdrawal symptoms at baseline (T1), and five (T2) and twenty (T3) minutes after using the e-cigarette ad libitum for five minutes. A subset of participants completed the Letter Cancellation and Brown-Peterson Working Memory Tasks. After 20 minutes, compared with the just hold group, desire to smoke and some aspects of nicotine withdrawal were significantly reduced in the nicotine and placebo group; the nicotine e-cigarette was superior to placebo in males but not in females. The nicotine e-cigarette also improved working memory performance compared with placebo at the longer interference intervals. There was no effect of nicotine on Letter Cancellation performance. To conclude, the White Super e-cigarette alleviated desire to smoke and withdrawal symptoms 20 minutes after use although the nicotine content was more important for males. This study also demonstrated for the first time that the nicotine e-cigarette can enhance working memory performance. Further evaluation of the cognitive effects of the e-cigarette and its efficacy as a cessation tool is merited.


Ash Briefing

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Published January 2013

Summary

• E-cigarettes are evolving and there is increasing evidence to suggest that some if not all products provide effective nicotine delivery.

• There is little real-world evidence of harm from e-cigarettes to date, especially in comparison to smoking.

• E-cigarettes are used by both smokers and ex-smokers, but there is little evidence of use by those who have never smoked.

• ASH supports regulation to ensure the safety and reliability of ecigarettes but, in the absence of harm to bystanders, does not consider it appropriate to include e-cigarettes under smokefree regulations.

• The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is currently reviewing options to regulate nicotine-containing products including e-cigarettes. Meanwhile, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) is developing guidance on harm reduction, which will include electronic cigarettes, for publication in May 2013.

http://www.ash.org.uk/files/documents/ASH_715.pdf[10]


Economics of Tobacco by ASH

<pdf>http://www.ash.org.uk/files/documents/ASH_121.pdf</pdf>

Vaping profiles and preferences: an online survey of electronic cigarette users

Abstract Wiley Online Library

Aims

To characterize e-cigarette use, users and effects in a sample of Electronic Cigarette Company (TECC) and Totally Wicked E-Liquid (TWEL) users.

Design and setting

Online survey hosted at the University of East London with links from TECC/TWEL websites from September 2011 to May 2012.

Measurements

Online questionnaire.

Participants

One thousand three hundred and forty-seven respondents from 33 countries (72% European), mean age 43 years, 70% male, 96% Causacian, 44% educated to degree level or above.

Findings

Seventy-four percent of participants reported not smoking for at least a few weeks since using the e-cigarette and 70% reported reduced urge to smoke. Seventy-two percent of participants used a ‘tank’ system, most commonly, the eGo-C (23%). Mean duration of use was 10 months. Only 1% reported exclusive use of non-nicotine (0 mg) containing liquid. E-cigarettes were generally considered to be satisfying to use; elicit few side effects; be healthier than smoking; improve cough/breathing; and be associated with low levels of craving. Among ex-smokers, ‘time to first vape’ was significantly longer than ‘time to first cigarette’ (t1104 = 11.16, P < 0.001) suggesting a lower level of dependence to e-cigarettes. Ex-smokers reported significantly greater reduction in craving than current smokers (χ21 = 133.66, P < 0.0007) although few other differences emerged between these groups. Compared with males, females opted more for chocolate/sweet flavours (χ21 = 16.16, P < 0.001) and liked the e-cigarette because it resembles a cigarette (χ23 = 42.65, P < 0.001).

Conclusions

E-cigarettes are used primarily for smoking cessation, but for a longer duration than nicotine replacement therapy, and users believe them to be safer than smoking.

Other Resources

Please visit the following pages for even more information on the studies, research, and compilations of information available.



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